Fig. 7.3. Location of the battery and the generator in the engine compartment: 1 - the storage battery; 2 - generator
Location of the battery and the generator in the motor compartment shown in Fig. 7.3.
Voltage onboard electrical system all in this guide car is 12 V. "weight" of the body is connected to the "minus" terminal of the battery. The battery is located in the engine compartment or under the rear seat (models with air conditioning, as well as some diesel versions).
To start the engine using the starter motor. Starter switch - part of the ignition switch - when the supply voltage to the set on the starter relay. The generator is driven by the engine crankshaft via the V-belt. Mounted on the back of the generator controller is used to control the charging current.
The battery consists of six elements (cans). The battery produces a current required to start the engine of the car, the ignition system, and lighting, as well as other consumers.
To the battery lasts longer, and its maximum capacity was, from time to time you need to perform the following operation.
Always keep the battery and its surrounding components clean. The surface of the battery must be dry, or between individual banks may have superficial leakage currents, which is why the battery will discharge itself.
The electrolyte level must always be at the ring located on the underside of the filling chamber. For topping up is necessary to use distilled water.
In cold weather, do not leave the battery in an uncharged state, as it is (or rather, the electrolyte therein) freeze. Weakly charged battery freezes at a temperature of about -10 ?° C.
Removing and installing the battery
The battery is located in the engine compartment of a black plastic cover the waterproof case. Before removing the battery, remove the cover.
When disconnecting the battery from the memory unit of the central control system of the engine and gearbox, anti-lock braking systems, a number of other appliances, such as radio and clock, erased information occurring faults. Once connected, re-program the appropriate instruments. Some commercially installed radios are equipped with a security code. It prevents unauthorized use of the radio if its power is turned off. Power and clock radio is switched off if, for example, disconnected battery, lifted the receiver, or the fuse blows. If the radio is coded, before disconnecting, make sure that you know the security code. If the code is not known, turn the radio can only be at the service station Hyundai.
Remove the cover of the waterproof case.
Switch off the ignition.
Disconnect the cable first "mass" battery, then "plus" cable.
Remove the bolt mounting plate, remove the battery.
The battery contains toxic compounds that should not fall into the trash. Overage battery over to the specified collection point for recycling.
Before installing, clean the battery terminals, this will suit a brass wire brush. To prevent corrosion cover the battery terminals with special grease.
Install the battery, tighten the bolt mounting plate 20 N ?· m.
Connect the "plus" cable to the positive terminal of the battery, then the earth cable to the negative terminal.
If requested, enter your radio.
Improper connection of the battery can cause serious damage to the generator and the entire electrical system.
Checking the technical condition of the battery
There are several ways to test the battery, according to use different gauges.,
Checking degree of discharge of the battery
The density of the electrolyte in conjunction with the measurement of the voltage at the battery terminals makes it possible to make an accurate conclusion about the state of charge of the battery. To test serves as a hydrometer, which can be purchased in a specialty store. The greater the density of the electrolyte, the more rises (float) float hydrometer. On hydrometer scale values expressed in terms of density (g / cm3).
During the measurement of the density of the electrolyte follow so that the surface of the battery box and other details with the pipette hydrometer not falling droplets of electrolyte containing sulfuric acid, which causes corrosion and leakage.
When measuring the density of the electrolyte temperature of the electrolyte should be in the range of 20-30 ?° C. The density of the electrolyte should be measured in each element (bank) battery. After measuring the density of the electrolyte can set the degree of discharge of the battery.
The density of the electrolyte in all banks must be the same.
The density of the electrolyte in a fully charged battery is 1.28 g / cm 3; discharged in a 25% - 1.24 g / cm 3; discharged at 50% - 1.20 g / cm 3.
Battery, discharged more than 25% in winter and more than 50% in the summer, remove from the car and recharge.
Check the battery under load
Connect a voltmeter to the battery terminals.
Start up the engine and lock the tension.
Tension fully charged battery when starting the engine should be at least 8 (at a temperature of the electrolyte, and hence the environment, +20 ?° C).
If the voltage drops sharply and the elements (banks) battery was found different density of the electrolyte can be concluded malfunction of the battery.
Charging the battery
Never short-circuit the battery - do not connect "plus" and "minus" plug. When short-circuit the battery heats up and may explode.
The electrolyte should not get in eyes, on skin or clothing; in contact with skin or eyes, rinse with plenty of water.
Before charging the battery, first unplug the cable from the "masses", then "plus" cable.
Before charging, check the electrolyte level, if necessary add distilled water.
Frozen battery (the battery electrolyte is frozen) defrost before charging. A fully charged battery is frozen at -65 ?° C, a half-charged battery - at -30 ?° C, flat battery - at -12 ?° C.
Charge the battery in a well-ventilated area. When charging the battery installed, leave open the car's hood.
In normal charging the charging current is about 10% capacity of the battery (ie battery capacity of 50 Ah to be charged current of about 5.0 A). The charging time can take 10 hours.
Connect the positive terminal of the battery with the "plus" wire, the negative terminal of the battery with the "minus" the charger.
During charging the electrolyte temperature must not exceed +55 ?° C, if necessary, discontinue charging or reduce the charging current value.
Charge the battery as long as all the elements of the battery will not start copious gas and consecutive one hour three dimensions will not cease to increase the density of the electrolyte and the voltage.
After charging, check the electrolyte level, if necessary add distilled water.
The engine must not run with the battery disconnected, otherwise the electrical system will be damaged.
Fast charging of the battery and start the engine when the battery is discharged. Charge the battery or start up the engine when the battery is discharged by a fast charger only in extreme cases, as in this case the battery is exposed to very high current strength. Long shelf life battery can not be charged by this device. Observe the storage battery.
Batteries that are not used for a long time, discharge by themselves and can be susceptible to sulfation plates. If such a battery quick charger to charge, they do not accept the charging current due to the so-called surface charge.
Before you reject the battery, check the following:
- The density of the electrolyte. If all the elements, it does not differ by more than 0.02 g / cm 3, a battery charger to be charged;
- Under load after charging. If the values do not match the required, the battery is faulty;
- The density of the electrolyte. If the density of one or more banks is much lower than in the other (e.g., in five banks density is 1.16 g / cm 3, and a 1.08 g / cm 3) in the battery internal short-circuiting.
To avoid premature aging of the battery, you should charge the battery in storage, every 3 months.
Self-discharge of the battery
Depending on the modifications to the vehicle during normal battery self-discharge is added to the energy consumption of permanent consumers. Therefore, the battery in the car, delivered in storage should be recharged every 1.5 months. If you suspect the presence of surface leakage current, check the power-supply system.
To check, use a fully charged battery.
Set the ammeter (with a limit of measurement of 0-5 mA and 0-5 A) highest limit of measurement. Turn on the ammeter between the negative terminal of the battery cable and the "masses". The wire from the positive terminal of the ammeter connected to the positive terminal of the battery, the negative ammeter - to the negative terminal of the battery.
Turn off all electrical consumers, close the doors and the trunk, turn off the ceiling illumination of a motor compartment.
Switch the measuring range of the ammeter to decrease until, until there any evidence (permissible value range of 1-3 mA). Taking out one after the other fuses from the fuse block, remove or tamper with any electrical circuit in series. If the opening of one of the chains readings will drop to 0, then the chain should look for the source of the fault. Troubleshooting: corroded or dirty contacts contact sockets, frayed wires, the internal circuit in the electrical components.
If protected fuse circuit fault is detected, disconnect the wires from the fuse unprotected devices - generator, starter, ignition system components.
If you disable one of the unprotected circuits ammeter will drop to 0, repair or replace the appropriate item. When leakage current in the starter or ignition system, always check (in accordance with the scheme) the ignition switch and starter.