The voltage of the electrical system of Hyundai cars is 12 V. The electrical equipment on a single scheme - the negative conclusions of sources and electricity consumers are connected to the car body, which acts as the second wire - "mass". Power of electrical appliances is carried out by the lead-acid battery type, rechargeable from the alternator.
This section describes the maintenance and repair of some of the elements of an onboard electric equipment. In addition, consider the diagnosis of electrical faults.
Safety precautions when working with electrical equipment
At repair of electrical equipment and power supply system of the engine disconnect the wire from the plug ?«-?» the storage battery.
When replacing fuses it is prohibited to use a screwdriver and a metal tool, as this could cause a short circuit in the electrical circuits.
Do not disconnect the ignition switch and the battery with the engine running, as a consequence may be damaged voltage regulator, and the elements of the electronic equipment of the car.
When testing electrical circuits Never short on "weight" wire (check serviceability chains "to spark") to prevent failure of electrical components.
It is forbidden to even briefly connect the output "30" of the generator with "weight" (check the operation of the generator "to spark"), as it will lead to failure of the diode rectifier unit generator. Check the generator on the car can only voltmeters and ammeters. To avoid failure of the diode rectifier unit is prohibited or check their Megger test lamp supply voltage greater than 12 V, as well as to check such a chain of electrical appliances in a vehicle without disconnecting the wires from the generator. Check the insulation resistance of the stator winding of the generator voltage must be increased on the alternator removed from the car, when disconnected from the rectifier output unit of the stator winding.
When carrying out electric welding on the vehicle is necessary to disconnect the wires from the battery terminals and the terminals of the generator.
Do not touch the ignition system components and high-voltage wires with the engine running.
Do not run wires low and high voltage in one bundle.
When charging using a battery charger the battery on the car disconnect the wires from the battery terminals.
Fault diagnosis onboard electric equipment
The structure of a typical electrical circuit may include the main electrical element, various switches, relays, motors, fuses, fuses or circuit breakers related to this item, as well as wiring and connectors that serve to connect the main element of the battery and the "weight" body. To facilitate troubleshooting of electrical circuits in manual contains circuit diagrams and wiring diagrams.
Before starting to work on troubleshooting a circuit, carefully study the corresponding scheme that as clearly as possible to imagine its functionality. Circle troubleshooting usually by gradually narrows the definition and exclusion of well-functioning elements of the same circuit. With the simultaneous failure of several elements or outlines the most likely cause of failure is a blown fuse or a violation of the relevant ground (various chain in many cases may be closed by one fuse or earth terminal).
Electrical failure is often explained by simple reasons, such as corrosion of the connector pins, failure of fuses, blown fuse, or damage to the relay. Perform a visual check of the condition of all safety locks, wires and pin connectors circuit before embarking on a more specific check of serviceability of its components.
In the case of applications for troubleshooting diagnostic tools, plan carefully (according to the wiring diagrams) in
any point of the contour and the sequence in which the device must be connected with the aim of identifying the most effective faults.
The main diagnostic devices include electrical circuits tester or voltmeter (can also use a 12-volt test lamp with a set of connecting wires), LED open circuit (probe), which includes a lamp, its own power supply and a set of connecting wires. In addition, you should always have a set of wires in the car to start the engine from an external source (other car battery) equipped with clips of the "crocodile" and is desired circuit breaker, which can be used for bypass and connection of the various elements in the diagnosis of electrical circuit. As mentioned above, before proceeding to the verification of the chain with the help of diagnostic equipment, identify schemes where it is connected.
Check for voltage held in the event of an electrical circuit. Connect one of the wires of electrical circuits or the tester to the negative terminal of the battery or to a well-grounded point of the car body. Another wire tester connected to the terminal connector circuit under test, preferably closest to the battery or fuse. If the warning light tester lights, the power supply in this segment of the chain there, confirming serviceability of the connection between this point of the circuit and the battery. Acting in the same way, explore the rest of the chain. Detection of violations of voltage indicates a fault between a given point of the circuit and the last of the previously tested (where it was the power supply). In most cases, the cause of failure is weakening pin connectors and damage the contacts themselves (oxidation).
Remember that some electrical circuit board are powered only when the ignition key is in the "ACC" (park) or ?«RUN?» (movement).
Finding fault location. One of the methods of searching for a short-circuit is to extract the fuse and wiring instead lamp or voltmeter probe. The tension in the chain should be absent. Pulled wiring, watching the lamp-sampler. If the lamp flashes - somewhere in the wiring harness is the closure of the "masses" may have caused grinded wire insulation. A similar test can be carried out for each of the components of the electric circuit by incorporating the respective switches.
Check of the ground. This check is performed to determine the reliability of the grounding circuit element. Disconnect the battery and connect one wire lampyprobnika having an independent power supply, to a known good ground point. Another lamp wire to connect the suspected harness or connector pins. If the lamp lights up, grounding in the order (and vice versa).
Check for broken wire detection circuit continuity. After a power circuit, check it with a lamp-sampler with independent power supply. Connect the probe to both ends of the chain. If the warning light comes on, there is an open circuit. If the lamp is not lit, it indicates the presence of a chain break. Similarly, you can check the power switch and connecting the probe to the contacts. Upon transfer switch to "On." Lamp should illuminate the probe.
Locating the break. When the diagnosis of a suspect for an open area circuit visually detect the cause of the problem is rather difficult, as inspection terminals for corrosion or violation of the quality of their contacts is difficult because of limited access to them (usually terminals are closed housing connector). Sudden twitching body connector on the sensor or its wiring harness in many cases leads to the restoration of contact. Keep this in mind when trying to localize the causes of failure of the suspect for an open circuit. Instability arises failures may be due to oxidation of the terminals or violation of the quality of contacts.
Troubleshooting of electrical circuits is not a difficult task, provided a clear idea of what an electric current is supplied to all consumers (lamps, electric motor, etc.) from the battery through the wires through switches, relays, fuses, fusible links, and then returns to the battery through the "weight" of the car body. Any problems associated with electrical failure can be caused by the cessation of feeding them electric current from a battery or a return current to the battery.
Wires, fuses and relays
Protection of electrical circuits from short circuit provided by the use of fuses, circuit breakers and fuse links. Blown fuses are easily distinguished from the serviceable inspection by its transparent plastic housing. Inspect the fuse. If the fuse looks good outwardly, but suspected his condition remains, check up conductivity between contacts blade type protruding from his body.
When replacing the fuse of the conformity of the nominal value of the new par value of the old guard. Designed for different amperage fuse may appear to look the same, so special attention should be paid to labeling. Replacing a blown fuse on designed for smaller, especially in the greater strength of the current is undesirable. Each electric circuit needs to varying degrees of protection. Make sure that the markings on the body of the fuse corresponds to a current, which is designed
corresponding chain. If a replacement fuse blows immediately, it is unwise to continue his replacement. First, it should identify and eliminate the cause of his burnout. In most cases, is that of a short circuit in an electrical circuit caused by breakage or damage to the wire insulation.
Protection of certain electric circuits is carried out by including fuse links. Typically, inserts are used to protect the circuits which are not equipped with fuses, such as a chain ignition system.
Fuse similar to the fuses in the sense that their failure (melting) is easily determined visually.
To replace the fuse, disconnect the wire from the negative battery terminal. Remove burnt box and install in its place a new one. Before replacing the insert is required to try to determine the cause of the overload that caused the output of the inserting system.
Circuit breakers (thermal relays)
Thermal relays are used to protect items such as electric windows, door locks and Electrocorrector. Some circuit breakers are installed in the mounting block. Return thermal relay to the original state on some models automatically, ie in the event of an overload in the circuit thermal relay opens instantly, and then after cooling back to its original state. If the return path to the working position does not, it should immediately check. Normal functioning of the thermal relay confirms serviceability of the circuit. Some of the breakers are equipped with buttons for forced reset manually.
To prevent short circuits and overloads electricity consumers individual circuits are protected by fuses. For Hyundai vehicles used fuses with contacts blade type corresponding to the latest technological advances.
Before replacing a fuse, first be sure to disconnect the relevant consumer.
Pry the fuse box cover narrow screwdriver and remove it.
Blown fuse is determined by the molten metal strip. Fuse is shown inside the cover of the fuse box.
Remove the defective fuse plastic tweezers, located in the fuse box cover.
Insert a new fuse of the same rating (amperage).
If the newly inserted fuse blows after a short time, check the appropriate circuit.
In no case do not replace the fuse wire or similar aids ("bugs"), because due to this car's electrical system can cause serious damage.
It is always recommended to have in the car a set of spare fuses of different values. For storage in the fuse box provided for the appropriate place.
The amperage fuse which is designed, applied to the back side of its body. In addition, the housing is painted in the appropriate color, by which to determine the nominal current strength (see Table 7.1.).
Close the fuse box cover.
Color matching fuse rated current
Rated current, A
For supplying electric current to certain elements of the vehicle's electrical relays are used. Infringement of serviceability of the relay leads to a refusal to serve their element. In the event of a suspected malfunction of any of the relay check it at the service station or in a specialized repair shop. Replacement of the failed relay is held in the collection.
Installation of additional electrical equipment
When drilling holes in the back of their edges must remove burrs, it is necessary to do the edges prime and paint. The resulting drilling swarf must be removed from the body. For all the works relating to electrical equipment, to prevent short circuits necessarily have to disconnect the cable of "weight" from the storage battery.
When disconnecting the battery information is erased from the memory of the electronic control unit of the engine and gearbox, anti-lock braking system and other electrical devices, such as radio and clock.
Cables are installed when installing additional electrical equipment, as far as possible should be laid along the wiring harness and attach using cable ties and rubber bushings.
If you want, you must attach an additional adhesive wire to prevent the emergence of noise and electromagnetic origin of friction tape, cable ties or similar fasteners. Note that between the brake pipe and firmly padded electrical wires should be a minimum distance of 10 mm between the brake pipes and electrical wires connected to the motor or other vehicle components, - at least 25 mm.
When installing additional electrical equipment Check whether the power supply of the generator. If you want to install higher capacity generator.