Cars KIA Spectra, manufactured in Russia, equipped with transversely spaced four-four-stroke gasoline injector 16-valve engine 1.6-liter mod. S6D (type DOHC).
Engine S6D in-line vertical arrangement of cylinders, liquid cooling. Parts and components of the engine shown in Fig. 5.1-5.3.
The cylinder head made of aluminum alloy which is common to all the cylinders of the engine. In the lower part of the cylinder head cast channels in which circulates the liquid cooling of the combustion chamber. The head pressed into the seat and valve guides. Inlet and outlet valves have one spring, through a fixed plate with two biscuits. Pyatiopornymi engine with two camshafts has four valves per cylinder, two intake and two exhaust. The drive is provided by the valve camshaft that directly affect the valve lifters by acting simultaneously as pushers. Camshafts intake and exhaust valves are driven by the engine crankshaft reinforced toothed belt.
The cylinder block
(see. Fig. 5.1),
the engine is a single casting, the cylinder, the cooling jacket and the channels of the oil pipeline. Numbering of cylinders of the engine is from the crankshaft pulley. The unit is made of special high-strength cast iron cylinders are bored directly into the body block. In the cylinder block made special flushing, flanges and holes for fastening parts, components and assemblies, as well as the channels of the main oil pipeline. At the bottom of the cylinder are five pillars crankshaft bearing with removable covers that attach to the block bolts. Engine main bearing caps are processed in gathering with the unit and interchangeable. By the bottom of the cylinder through a gasket attached sump, closing below the cavity block and performs the function of the oil reservoir.
Fig. 5.1. The cylinder block and crankshaft of the engine 1 - the engine block; 2 - piston; 3 - the connecting rod; 4 - the crankshaft; 5 - a cover of a rod The crankshaft
2 (see. Fig. 5.2)
pyatioporny, molded from a special high-strength cast iron. It has eight counterweights made integrally with the shaft. For the supply of oil from the crank journals to the crank the crankshaft made drilling. The crankshaft of the engine is secured against axial displacement by two persistent half rings installed in the main bearing bore bed. At the front end of the crankshaft is a toothed pulley of the camshaft. To the rear of the crankshaft bolted cast iron flywheel ring gear are pressed to start the engine starter. On the back of the hand wheel is pressed onto the target disk crankshaft position sensor. On vehicles with automatic transmission to the crankshaft flange attached mounting plate torque converter. The front and rear ends of the crankshaft are sealed with rubber seals samopodzhimnymi.
Fig. 5.2. The crankshaft of the engine 1 - the top loose leaf of the radical bearing; 2 - the crankshaft; 3 - the lower main bearing shells; 4 - a cover of the radical bearing; 5 - a bolt; 6, 7 - persistent half rings Cranks
6 (see. Fig. 5.3)
steel, forged, the rod of I-section, are processed together with the cover 10 on the bottom end.
Fig. 5.3. Piston and connecting rod: 1 - top compression ring; 2 - lower compression ring; 3 - oil ring; 4 - piston; 5 - the piston pin; 6 - a connecting rod; 7 - the bolt connecting rod cap; 8 - the upper connecting rod bearings; 9 - the lower connecting rod bearings; 10 - a cover of a rod; 11 - a nut of fastening of a cover of a rod
Pistons 4 are made of aluminum alloy. The piston skirt oval in cross-section, longitudinally - conical. To reduce the pressure of the piston on the cylinder wall during the stroke axis of the piston pin hole 5 is displaced relative to the center plane of the piston. On the cylindrical surface of the piston head are made annular grooves of the valve stem and the two compression rings. Piston rings cast iron. The first compression ring has a barrel-shaped outer surface, the second ring - conical tapered outer surface. Scraper ring compound, scraper-type spring expander.
Lubrication system combined: the most loaded parts are lubricated under pressure, and the rest - a sprinkling of oil flowing from the gaps between mating parts. Pressure in the system is created with a gear lubricant oil pump installed outside the front cylinder cover and actuated from the front end of the crankshaft.
The pump draws oil from the oil sump of the engine through the oil receiver with strainer and then through the full-flow oil filter with a filter element made of porous paper feeds it into the main oil highway, located in the body of the cylinder. From the main highway depart channel for supplying oil to the main bearings of the crankshaft. By connecting rod bearings oil is fed through channels formed in the body of the crankshaft. From the main oil line extends vertical channel for supplying oil to the camshaft supports and upper longitudinal oil passage connected to bores in the cylinder head with hydrojacks clearance in the valve mechanism.
Crankcase ventilation system is not gated communicates directly with the atmosphere, so simultaneously with suction of gases and vapors formed in the crankcase of gasoline vacuum at all operating conditions of the engine, which increases the reliability of the various motor seals and reduces the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere. The ventilation system consists of the positive crankcase ventilation valve, hose primary circuit crankcase ventilation, inlet pipe and hose second circuit crankcase ventilation, which connects the ventilation system with a diffuser throttle knot.
When the engine is idling crankcase gases after the oil separator, located in the cylinder head cover, under the influence of the vacuum in the intake pipe through the valve comes in zadrosselnoe space through a hose. The valve limits the amount of aspirated gas, so as not to disrupt the engine idling. When the engine is under load when the throttle valve is partially or fully open, the main volume of crankcase gases takes place via a hose in the air supply conduit upstream of the throttling unit and further via the receiver into the combustion chamber.
The engine cooling system is sealed, with an expansion chamber includes the cooling jacket formed in the casting and the surrounding cylinder block, combustion chambers and gas passages in the cylinder head. Forced circulation of coolant water is provided by a centrifugal pump driven by the crankshaft Poly-V belt. To maintain the normal operating temperature of the liquid in the cooling system thermostat set spanning a large range of the system when the engine is cold and low-temperature coolant.
The power supply system consists of a fuel engine module installed in the fuel tank, the throttle assembly, fuel fine filter, fuel pressure regulator, injectors, fuel and air filter.
Ignition system microprocessor controlled by a controller (electronic control unit). The controller also controls the fuel injection system. The ignition system in operation is maintenance and adjustment.
Powertrain (engine and gearbox, clutch and main gear) is mounted on four pillars with elastic rubber elements: the two upper side (right and left), which receive the bulk of the power unit, and the front and rear lower compensating torque from the transmission and load resulting in moving the car from the scene, acceleration and braking.