Technology services, tools and the workplace equipment
There are several methods of performing the procedures of maintenance and repair of the car to which the reader will find references in the text of this manual. Following them will make the work more efficient home mechanic, will allow the best way to organize and efficiently execute various technical procedures and will be the key to a thorough and full implementation of all works.
Clamps called nuts, bolts, screws and serving to interconnect two or more parts. When working with fasteners need to constantly be aware of some things. Virtually any fasteners used some form of X's and locking devices. It can be lock washers, lock nuts, lock boxes or locking compound to the threads. All threaded fasteners used should be absolutely clean and direct, with an unbroken thread and not rounded corners hexagonal heads that are worn wrench. It should make it a rule obligatory replacement of damaged nuts and bolts of the new. Special self-locking nuts with nylon inserts or fibers can not be reused, since the giving of the X's are losing their properties and the assembly should always be replaced with new ones.
| || 1 - Strength class 1 or 2 |
2 - Strength class 5
3 - Strength class 8
| || Marking a class of durability of bolts (top - standard / SAE / SS, at the bottom - metric). |
Marking a class of durability standard hex nuts
| Strength class || Identification of the class |
| Hex nut Strength class 5 || |
Hex nut Strength class 8
Marking a class of durability of metric hex nuts
| Strength class || Identification of the class |
Hex nut Strength class 9
| Hex nut Strength class 10 || |
Rusted bolts and nuts to facilitate loosening and to avoid damage to the render must be treated with special penetrating composition. Many mechanics prefer to use for this purpose turpentine which is convenient to put out a special small canister with a long spout. After wetting "become attached" fixture penetrating composition, before proceeding to his giving of, should be given a structure for a few minutes to soak thoroughly oxidised contact layer. Strongly rusted fixture can be cut down a chisel, hacksaw sawed or removed using a special gaykoloma.
When cutting the bolt head or breaking of the stud in the assembly, the threaded portion of the residue can be drilled out or removed with a special tool. Most garages can undertake performance of this, as well as others (eg, restoration of stripped threads in the threaded holes), repair procedures.
Flat and lock washers during assembly must always be set in place in the same manner and in the same manner as before. The damaged washers always replace with new ones. Between a lock washer and a soft metal surface (such as aluminum), thin sheet metal or plastic always install flat washers.
Dimensions of fasteners
For many reasons manufacturers of cars more and more widely used metric fasteners. However, it is important to know the difference between used sometimes standard (also called American or standard SAE) and more universal system of measures metric fixture as, despite the external similarity, they are not interchangeable.
All bolts, both standard and metric classified according to diameter, length and thread pitch. For example, the standard bolt 1/2 - 13H1 has a half-inch in diameter, 13 threads per inch and a length of 1 inch. Metric M12 - 1.75H25 has a diameter of 12 mm, the thread pitch of 1.75 mm (the distance between adjacent coils) and a length of 25 mm. Both bolts are almost identical in appearance but are not interchangeable.
In addition to these features both metric and standard bolts can be identified by visual inspection of the head. To begin, the distance between the flats of the bolt head metric measured in mm, while the standard - in inches (the same is true for nuts). As a result, the standard wrench is not suitable for use with metric fasteners, and vice versa. In addition, the heads of most of the standard bolts usually are available the radial notches defining the maximum admissible effort of a tightening bolt (degree of strength). The greater the number of notches, the higher the permissible force (typically used on vehicles with bolts degree of strength from 0 to 5). Strength class of metric bolts is defined by a numeric code. Code numbers are usually cast as standard on the bolt head (on cars bolts commonly used classes 8.8, 9.8 and 10.9).
Also on the labels of strength class standard nuts can be distinguished from the metric. For identification standard nuts strength applied dot marks stamped on one of the end surfaces of the nut, while marking metric nuts made using again figures. The greater the number of points, or the higher the value of the digital code, the higher the permissible force tightening the nut.
End faces of metric hairpins also are marked in accordance with the class of their strength. Large labeled hairpin digital code, whereas the smaller marking is in the form of a geometric figure.
Marking a class of durability of metric studs
| || Class 10.9 |
Strength class 9.8
Strength class 8.8
Dimensions / marking strength class standard (SAE and USS) bolts
| || G - Marking strength class |
L - length (in inches)
T - Pitch (number of threads per inch)
D - The nominal diameter (in inches)
Dimensions / marking strength class of metric bolts
| || P - Strength class |
L - Length (mm)
T - Thread pitch (the distance between adjacent coils in mm)
D - The nominal diameter (in mm)
It should be noted that a significant portion of the holder, in particular the class of strength from 0 to 2, generally not labeled. In this case, the only way to distinguish a standard fixture of the metric is to measure the thread pitch or threads with comparing uniquely identified.
Standard hardware is often called, as opposed to metric, SAE standard fasteners, however, it should be remembered that under the SAE only small fixture gets. Close to the non-metric threaded fasteners is a fixture of the American standard (USS).
Since the hardware of the same geometrical size (both standard and metric) can be different strength classes, the replacement car bolts, nuts and studs should be given to matching the strength class of the newly established fixture strength class old.
Procedures and tightening of carving connections
Tightening most of threaded connections should be made with the efforts defined by requirements of Specifications, cited at the beginning of each chapter of the Guidelines (under the force of a tightening of fixture to be understood when it is applied to the tightening torque). The following tightening force will be referred to as torque fasteners. Tightening with excessive force can disrupt the integrity of the fixture, while nedotyagivanie it leads to a bad connection mating components. Bolts, screws and pins, depending on the material from which they are made and the diameter of the threaded portion, typically have well-defined allowable torques, many of which, as mentioned above, are shown in Specifications at the beginning of each chapter. Strictly adhere to the above recommendations for tightening torques applied on the car mounting. To tighten the fasteners are not mentioned in the Specifications should use the map below allowable torques. Values in the table are focused on fixture strength classes 2 and 3 (fixing a higher class permits tightening with great effort), in addition, it is understood that the delay is made of dry (with unlubricated thread) fasteners in steel or cast (not aluminum) part.
Dimensions of metric threads
9 - 12 N ??? m
19 - 28 N ??? m
38 - 54 N ??? m
68 - 96 N ??? m
109 - 154 N ??? m
Dimensions pipe threads
7 - 10 N ??? m
17 - 24 N ??? m
30 - 44 N ??? m
34 - 47 N ??? m
Thread size American standard
1/4 - 20
9 - 12 N ??? m
5/16 - 18
17 - 24 N ??? m
5/16 - 24
19 - 27 N ??? m
3/8 - 16
30 - 43 N ??? m
3/8 - 24
37 - 51 N ??? m
7/16 - 24
55 - 74 N ??? m
7/16 - 20
55 - 81 N ??? m
1/2 - 13
75 - 108 N ??? m
Located on the perimeter of any fasteners (such as the cylinder head bolts, oil pan, and a variety of covers), in order to avoid deformation of the details should be given and be tightened in the correct order. Order of a tightening of the fastener and the give is given in the Handbook. If the special order is not stipulated, in order to avoid the curvature component should follow the procedure below. In the first stage all bolts or nuts must be tightened by hand. Further, each of them in turn should be to reach out for another full revolution, the transition odes one bolt / nut to another should be done in a diagonal order (cross-wise). Then, returning to the first bolt / nut, repeat the procedure in the same order, tightening fixture for another half-turn. Continue to operate in the same manner, tightening each bolt / nut this time a quarter turn in one go as long as they will not appear tightened with demanded effort. At the giving of fasteners as well should follow the above procedure, but in reverse order.
Dismantling of all components must be carried out in such a manner that at assemblage each detail could be set to its original location and in the right way. Memorize the characteristic features of the appearance, if required produce marked landing parts which are installed in place can be made a mixed manner (such elements include, for example, equipped with a thrust washer groove on shaft). A good idea would be the location of the removed parts on a clean work surface in the order in which they performed the removal. It will be useful also to compose simple schematic sketches or photographs to be step by step dismantling of the component.
When removing fasteners try to make the marking of its initial position in the assembly. Often, the immediate installation of fixture and washers to their original location after the removal of the relevant parts avoids confusion in the assembly. In the absence of such a possibility, all fixture should be put in a specially prepared for this purpose broken into sections and suitably marked box, or just for individual-marked box. Such a course of action is particularly useful when working with components composed of many small parts such as carburetor, alternator, valve mechanism, the instrument panel or decorative trim elements.
When disconnecting the electrical contacts and connectors should be given to labeling wires and harnesses with electrical tape coated with a numeric or alphanumeric code.
The intermediate surface
All laying vehicles used for sealing the interface mating surfaces of two or more items, and serve to prevent leakage of oils and fluids within the assembly and maintenance of high pressure or vacuum.
Often these pads before installing covered in liquid or paste sealing compound. Often under the influence of time, temperature or pressure occurs so strong "from sticking" to each other interfaced surfaces that division of details becomes difficult to achieve. In many cases, the dismantling of these assemblies helps tapping them outside the perimeter of the junction hammer with soft brisk. You can use for this purpose also the usual hammer, putting blows through a wooden or plastic spacer. Do not make tapping cast cases and fragile components. In the event of such difficulties always first check that all your hardware is removed.
Avoid applying to separate parts screwdriver or pry bar, introducing them between the mating surfaces, since the sealing surfaces at the same time can be easily damaged, which can later cause leaks. If podrychazhivaniya "become attached" elements of the assembly can not be avoided, use for this purpose the handle from old brooms, but bearing in mind that, after all the formed chips should be carefully removed from the mating surfaces and the inside of the assembly.
After the separation of parts of the mating surfaces should be thoroughly cleaned with a scraping traces of the old gasket material. The hardened fragments of the old gasket can be pre-softened with a converter rust or a special chemical composition and then removed from the mating surface of the scraper. As in this case a scraper may be used to cut the copper tube and flattened pointed end. The use for this purpose is a copper tube is recommended, as copper is usually softer materials used in the car, which reduces the risk of damage to the mating surfaces. Some pads can be easily removed with a copper brush, however, regardless of the method used, the mating surfaces must be absolutely clean and smooth. If for some reason turned out to scratch the mating surface, before assembling the components fill the scratch gasket sealant. In most cases, you should not use the curable (or poluzastyvayuschim) sealant.
Tips for removing hoses
If your car is equipped with an air conditioning system, in any case, do not disconnect from conditioner components any hoses until then, until the system will not be discharged in the executive branch of the company if a specialist in air conditioning systems Car workshop.
Precautions that should be observed when removing the hoses are very similar to those when removing the seals. Do not damage the surfaces of fittings and nozzles on hoses that dress, as this can cause leaks. In particular as it relates to the procedure for removal of the radiator hose. Because of the different chemical reactions occur "from sticking" rubber hoses to the mating surfaces of the fittings and pipes. To remove the hose first loosen the clamp it to the socket. Then the tongs with the sliding hinge grab the hose near the collar and start to rotate it on the nipple / pipe connecting the right and left. Continue this procedure until the full liberation of the hose, then remove the hose from the union. A small amount of Silicone or other lubricants facilitate the process, though it may be introduced into the gap between the nipple and the hose. To facilitate the installation of the hose lubricate the inner surface and an outer surface of the hose fitting.
As a last resort, or in the case of an unambiguous need to replace the hose with a new one put on at the end of the hose fitting for removal can be cut with a knife, and then separated from the surface of the nozzle. At the same time, try not to damage a knife metal fitting / under the connecting pipe.
In the event of damage to the hose clip, replace with a new one. Clamps of the pitch type generally weaken over time, however, regardless of their state, in case it is better to replace the screw-type clamps.
Choosing a good tool is one of the basic requirements for everyone who plans independent performance of procedures of maintenance or repair of the vehicle. At first glance, the costs associated with the acquisition of the required set of instruments that may seem large, but when comparing them with the costs associated with the implementation of procedures of routine maintenance and simple repairs to the car at the service station, will be quite reasonable.
In order to help the average motorist in the selection of tools required for different kinds of treatments for the vehicle described in this manual, the following lists the three sets of tools conditionally entitled as a set of tools for routine maintenance and minimal repair; a set of tools for general and major repairs and special tools. Car owners who have no practical experience of mechanical work must begin with the procedures, the limited use of tools from the first list, while improving their skills and gradually expanding the range of tools used. As you gain experience, you can move on to more advanced tasks, complementing the existing set of tools on hand. After some time, these skills will allow to start more complex tasks that require the use of tools from the second list (for the general and car major repairs). When your qualification will begin to allow significant savings in the independent performance of difficult repair procedures, you can consider buying a special tool.
A set of tools for routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs
The following list includes the minimum necessary to perform the procedures of routine maintenance and minor repairs car tools. It is recommended to purchase a set of combination wrenches (with usual Rozhkova head at one end and a swivel on the other), despite the high cost of such a set against the value of the common set of open-end wrench, the costs will be justified, as data keys have the advantages of both types.
- Combined set of keys (1/4 - 1 inch; 6 - 19 mm)
- Adjustable Wrench
- Candlestick key (with rubber insert)
- Tools to adjust the spark plug gap
- A set of test leads
- Barbed key to pumping the brakes
- With the flat blade (150 mm in length and 8 mm in diameter)
- Phillips screwdriver (number 2 x 6 inches (150 mm long)
- Combination pliers
- Hacksaw with a set of paintings
- Pressure gauge to measure tire pressure
- Grease gun (gun)
- Canister under oil
- Fine sandpaper
- Wire brush
- Stripper terminals and contacts wires of the battery
- The key is to remove the oil filter
- The funnel (medium size)
- Props for car fixing in the raised position (2)
- Dump tank
If routine maintenance procedures include carrying out basic adjustments, the acquisition will also need a good quality strobe and combined tachometer / tool for measuring the duration of the closed condition of contacts of the breaker. Despite the fact that these tools are in the list of special tools, mention of them is given here since the absolute necessity for their application adjust an ignition engine, part of procedures of routine maintenance of the vehicle.
A set of tools for general and major repairs of the car
This tool is required when carrying out any operations to repair a car engine and is offered in addition to the first list. This list includes the complete set of replaceable face heads. At considerable cost, a set of replaceable heads brings invaluable advantage, thanks to its versatility and easy handling - especially in combination with the included various types of drives. It is recommended to use the drive section is preferably 1/2 inch (instead of 3/8) as They, though, and are more expensive, can be used with virtually any type torque wrenches (ideally, a good mechanic should have at its disposal both types of drives). A cheaper alternative set of replaceable face heads is the set of tubular keys.
- Set of replaceable face heads (including type heads "Torh") (or tubular keys), sizes corresponding to the sizes of wrenches from the previous list
- Reversible ratchet drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
- Gate 250 mm
- Universal (propeller type) of the hinge (for use with face heads)
- Torque wrench (with a drive of the same size, as for replaceable face heads)
- A hammer with striker round - 8 ounces (about 230 g)
- Hammer with soft brisk (plastic or rubber) (Mallet)
- With the flat tip (150 mm long and about 6.5 mm in diameter)
- With a flat sting (strong ?„– 2, 8 mm)
- Phillips screwdriver (number 3 x 8 inches (203 mm))
- Phillips screwdriver (a strong number 2)
- Clamping tongs
- For electricians (with the isolated handles)
- Old World (needlenose)
- For retaining rings (internal and external)
- Chisel - 1/2 inch (13 mm)
- Scraper (made of flattened and sharpened at one end of the copper tube)
- Scriber (scriber)
- Beards with a thin tip (1.6, 3.2, 4.8 mm)
- Steel ruler / measuring flatness
- Set of hex key (Allen) (for heads with hexagon socket)
- A set of files
- Wire brush (large)
- The second set of backups
- Jack (hydraulic or scissor)
Another tool is the constant need for electric drill with a cartridge on 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) with a set of good quality drills.
In this list get instruments that are sufficiently costly, are not required regularly, or demanding performance when using the manufacturer's instructions. If the scope of your activities do not include frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations, the purchase of such a tool would be a bad investment. It is reasonable to acquire it by clubbing with friends, or to rent a car service workshops.
The list includes only those tools that can be found in retail trade or which are available for distribution to the Executive branch of the firm. Sometimes the text of the manual you will find references to such special tools. Usually authors try to offer in parallel the alternative method to avoid the mandatory use of hard-tool. Should avoid the use of special tools is impossible, and its acquisition in using is problematic, performance of corresponding works is better to entrust service specialist.
- Tool for compressing valve springs.
- Device for cleaning the piston ring grooves.
- Tool for crimping piston rings.
- A tool for installation of piston rings.
- Meter degree of compression of gases in the cylinders (Compression).
- Countersink for processing the edges of the cylinder.
- Hon for processing of mirrors of cylinders.
- Meter diameter cylinders.
- Micrometers (micrometers) and / or a dial caliper.
- The tool for removal of hydraulic pushers.
- Ball joint separator.
- Strippers universal type.
- Impact screwdriver.
- Set the dial gauge.
- Strobe (inductive sensor).
- Manual combined pump (vacuum / blower).
- Tachometer / tool for measuring the duration of the closed condition of contacts of the breaker.
- Universal tester for electric measurements.
- Lifting rigging.
- Tool for removal / installation of brake springs.
- Floor Jack.
Novice mechanic for the acquisition of the necessary tools to perform the procedures for maintenance and repair of the car can be offered some practical advice. In preparing for the procedures of routine maintenance or the minimum car repairs reasonable to acquire tools separately. On the other hand, in the case of extensive planning work easier and more reliable to buy a set of tools in modern retail store. The acquisition is usually set slightly cheaper individual purchases and is often supplemented with an attached tool box. In the future, to expand the choice can be dokupleny separate tools, additional complete sets and a tool box bigger. The gradual expansion of the tool kit will allow to stretch expenses and to be defined in a choice of really necessary tools.
Specialized tool shops are the only source of acquisition of some special tools, but regardless of the source, avoid cheap purchases, especially when choosing a screwdriver and replaceable face heads as term of their service for certain will appear short. The costs associated with the replacement and rehabilitation of low-cost instrument as a result will be incomparably greater than the cost of a one-time purchase of a quality product.
Care of the tool and storage
A good tool is a valuable investment, it is reasonable to make sure to keep it clean and constant readiness to work. After using the tool before you fold it to the storage location, always carefully wipe the surface clean with a dry cloth, removing from it the traces of dirt, grease and the remains of the metal particles. Never leave the tool scattered in the workplace. Upon completion of the space carefully check under the hood and under the vehicle for the presence of the forgotten tool.
For storage of tools such as screwdrivers, pliers, hammers, etc. ideal tool comb fixed in a convenient location on the wall of the garage. Sets of wrenches and replaceable face heads should be stored in metal boxes. Measuring tools should be stored out of reach of corrosion, dry and clean place.
Always pay attention to the working surfaces of the instrument. The impact of the striker hammer in the process exposed rasklepyvaniyu screwdriver eventually lose sharpening their stings. Do not be stingy to pay a little bit of time and attention to the fact that with sandpaper or a file to remove rasklepy and tidy cutting edges. Irreversibly worn or damaged, replace the tool.
At careful leaving the tool will serve you faithfully for a very long period of time.
Talking about the instrument, one can not forget about the equipment of the workplace. If you have to conduct more serious work, than simple maintenance, you should take care of the preparation of a suitable working platform.
We must acknowledge that many motorists are compelled to make the removal of the engine and other similar works far not in a garage or workshop. However, in any case, an important requirement is that the roof or tent.
If possible, any procedures on dismantling of parts of the car's systems should be made on a clean, flat bench or sturdy table convenient height. Workbench must be equipped with a vise. Sufficient is the presence of a vice with disclosing of sponges to 100 mm and with soft overlays on sponges.
As mentioned above, on the job site must be equipped with a clean, dry place to store tools, lubricants and cleaning fluids, putty, paints, etc.
It should be noted that absolutely necessary tool is electric, therefore the platform must be equipped with a power supply for its connection. The presence of a drill with a cartridge to 9.5 mm and a set of qualitative drills appreciably will facilitate carrying out of many procedures.
Finally, the workplace must always have an adequate supply of old newspapers and pure, not vorsyascheysya cloth designed for cleaning the work area, tools and car parts.
Refinement should take to recycling centers in sealed containers.
Never perform any work on the naked painted surface of the car, use protective overlays on wings, or, at worst, cover the polished surfaces with old blankets.