Working conditions and the used tool
Undergoing renovation works best in a clean, well-lit area where there is a workbench and vice. It should also be enough space to be able to spread out the various parts in a certain order. The well-equipped garage, you can work comfortably and without fuss, to disassemble and reassemble the machine in a clean place. Unfortunately, not everyone has the opportunity to work in ideal conditions, so always have to adapt to the actual conditions and it is desirable to have as much as possible more complete set of quality tools.
Bad tools may cause damage to the nuts, bolts, etc. Never allow this. Remember that buying a good tool - this is the best prerequisite for a successful self-service and maintenance of your car.
Fig. 4. Tools: 1 - Double open-end wrench; 2 - Combination wrenches with carob and union heads
Good quality tools is long and, in any case justify the cost of its acquisition. The basis of a set of tools is a set of open-end wrench 1 (Fig. 4).
It is desirable to have a set of wrenches with swivel head, which is very convenient when loosening "become attached" screws and nuts, as well as where there is not enough space.
To reduce costs, you can get a set of combined wrenches 2 (see. Fig. 4),
which on one hand are carob head, and on the other the head of the union. It is also advisable to purchase a set of mechanical heads, which will be very convenient to unscrew the hard or deeply recessed nuts and screws.
Fig. 5. Round (top) and pliers (at the bottom)
You must be a set of cross screwdrivers, pliers and a hammer. In the automotive industry are increasingly being applied to the screws so-called face head ?«Torx?». For loosening of screws, a special set of heads which are similar to the conventional, but have a different size (denoted by the letter ?«T?», e.g., ?«T40?» or ?«T50?»). In addition to the basic equipment you can buy a few special tools, which are often essential, for example, impact screwdriver, without which it will hardly be possible to untwist twisted by machine screws using a conventional Phillips screwdriver, without damaging them in the process. The impact screwdriver can be used when tightening the screws, often need pliers (Fig. 5)
used in removing the safety lock rings, which are very difficult to remove with a screwdriver.
Fig. 6. Recommended tools and accessories: 1 - oiler; 2 - a hydraulic jack; 3 - electric portable lamp; 4 - shell support; 5 - a torque wrench; 6 - a small handsaw; 7 - wire brush; 8 - a control lamp (12); 9 - Tyre tread depth gauge; 10 - gauge to measure the tire pressure; 11 - set of test leads
There are two types of pliers: needlenose pliers, designed for removal of the external retaining rings, and the other type - to relieve internal retaining rings. They come with straight or beveled tacks. One of the most useful tools is a special torque wrench 5 (Fig. 6),
which is a conventional wrench, adjustable so that it will slip if exposed exceeded the value of the torque screws or nuts. In a similar vein, it can be an arrow that indicates the amount of torque.
The modern model of the car, the more difficult is conducting independent repairs. It is often the need for expensive special equipment is used to diagnose and repair. So in some cases, better just to entrust the repair specialist at the service station car (SRT).
Despite the fact that in this workshop manual explains how to install the various assemblies and mechanisms without the use of special tools, we still strongly recommend to buy the most frequently used tools. Some of the most common tools and accessories that are in constant need for self repair and maintenance of the vehicle shown in Fig. 6.
Safety requirements and warnings
When carrying out maintenance and repair of vehicles must comply with the following recommendations to help avoid injury and damage:
- Free workplace of extra items in order to reduce the likelihood that you will stumble about anything;
- Before starting work, check if the tools and appliances, tidy work clothes: Button, season clothing so that there was no hanging ends, tuck your hair under a tight-fitting headgear;
- When carrying out any type of work the vehicle must be securely braked;
- Do not work under the vehicle, standing alone on a portable jack, always substitute additional support;
- Do not carry out maintenance and repair of the car with the engine running, except for certain types of work, the technology of which requires the engine start-up;
- Do not approach the dangerous hands, pieces of clothing, tools for working belts, pulleys, etc .;
- Never tighten the wheel nuts or if the vehicle is raised;
- Never open the cooling system expansion tank on the hot engine. In that case, if necessary, place a thick rag around the reservoir tank cover and gently loosen the cap so as to allow a couple to go;
- Observe the rules of fire safety;
- Do not operate the engine in a closed room without good ventilation to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning;
- Do not pour motor oil in the engine is hot;
- Waste oils and special fluids are subject to collection and delivery for recycling or disposal;
- Do not let brake fluid or anti-freeze on the paint of the car;
- As a result of the functioning of brake dust is released from the brake linings, which is harmful to health. All cleaning brake spend in respiratory equipment - respirators;
- Always remove from the earth the remains of oil or grease, so that they can not slip;
- On receipt of injury, always close the patch open wounds, try to avoid contact with them dirt, oil, etc .;
- Removing or installing heavy units and units spend two people;
- Never allow children or pets near the vehicle during the repairs;
- The repair of exhaust system, wait until it cools down;
- When dealing with electric devices, such as a drill or grinding tools, be sure to wear safety glasses. Points will not interfere at work beneath the car;
- If possible, try not to work alone under the vehicle;
- Never in a hurry to finish the job, so how can you forget to spin or simply not fully tighten any screws.