Contamination of engine oil
Depending on the operating conditions of engine oils are exposed to the effects of changing. It is therefore very difficult to determine the effects of various conditions on the lubricant. Engines running for a long time at high speed or under full load, reach a high temperature. The high temperature air and oxygen oil begins to oxidize. Oxidation products make denser oil may be deposited on top of the piston, the piston rings in the grooves and on valve stems. This can cause the formation of carbon on the valve plates.
Dilution of oil to gasoline engines
If the cylinders are getting too rich mixture, the motor can not develop its maximum power or permanently operated by the engine is too cold (urban cycle), is inevitably formed a deposit. Soot, burnt oil and other products, most unburnt fuel and condensation of liquid lead to the formation of sludge, acids, and asphalt. Unburned fuel is deposited on the mirror of the cylinder and drains into the sump, and the oil is washed off the film on the cylinder and piston. Effect: insufficient lubrication of the working surfaces of the pistons, and oil dilution, which reduces oil lubricity depending on the amount of permeated fuel. When dilution is too high, you may need to premature replacement of oil. Since the engine is hot particles evaporate from gasoline oil, the oil level should be monitored, especially in the winter (cold starts lot - increased content of the fuel oil).
The viscosity of engine oil
Viscosity fluid resistance is called the internal displacement of its layers. Depending on the temperature of each oil tends to change its viscosity. With increasing temperature, the oil becomes more fluid. Because of this deteriorates the adhesiveness and film strength. When oil is cold it becomes viscous, thus increasing the internal resistance of friction.
Scope / viscosity grades
On cold engine oil must be fluid enough so as not to obstruct the starter and start as soon as possible to act on all the points of lubrication. This requires the use of engine oil with viscosity changing manner smallest at different temperatures. The viscosity of the oil has the same meaning as the internal friction of the oil in the system and denoted SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers), for example, SAE 30, SAE 10, and so on. G. High numbers for SAE dense, low - on liquid oil. Viscosity not give any idea of the lubricating properties of the oil.
For engines MAZDA 323 should apply multigrade oil. Multigrade oils have the advantage that they can be used in winter and in summer. Year-round oil based liquid seasonal oil (eg 15 W). Due to the so-called thickeners stabilize oil in hot condition, so that for each state are provided with the necessary lubricity. "W" in the SAE system indicates that the oil can be used in winter.
Oils with anti-friction additives (Flush oils)
Flush oils are multigrade oils with anti-friction additives, so that the fuel economy can be up to 2%. Flush oil has a low viscosity (for example, 10 W - 30. For these unusual substrates (synthetic oil). When buying Flush oil should pay attention to the fact that this oil is suitable for MAZDA. Since neighboring SAE grades overlap, the maximum short-term fluctuations temperature. permissible oil mix different viscosity grades together if required to add oil and external temperatures are not appropriate viscosity grade oil located in the engine. Neither fuel nor the oil must not be admixed with any additives.
Specification of engine oil
For modern engines are allowed to use only oils HD. Oils HD - is an oil whose lubricating properties substantially improved by adding to these various substances. These additives cause a stronger protection against corrosion, oxidation, especially a reduced tendency to form sludge in the crankcase, the best viscosity, clearing and dissolving properties. Clearing and dissolving additives not only reduce the formation of sludge in the engine, but also have the ability to dissolve deposits and share them and other contaminants into small particles and hold pan in suspension, so that when changing the oil pollution merge with it. Oil quality HD designated classification API (American Petroleum Institute). European producers are guided also on this system.
The designation consists of two letters.
The first letter indicates the application:
- S = Service is intended for petrol engines;
- C = Commercial diesel engines.
The second letter indicates the quality of in alphabetical order.
The highest quality are on the API specification SG oil for gasoline engines and diesel engines for the CE.
Motor oil specified by the manufacturer for diesel engines, gasoline engines are not appropriate. There are oils suitable for diesel engines, and gasoline. In this case, the bank are both designations (e.g., SF / CD). For your MAZDA 323 with gasoline engines, motor oils determined SE, SF and SG specification API, for diesel engines API - CC and CD.
Speaking of the flow of oil in an internal combustion engine, it is meant the amount of oil that is consumed due to the combustion process. In no case should not be confused oil flow from the oil loss occurring due to leakage of the oil pan, cylinder head cover, and so on. G. Standard Oil consumption arises because of the combustion of a small quantity in cylinders, due to removal of residues and particulates wear debris. Oil wear due to high temperature and high pressure occurring in the engine. On the oil flow is also greatly influence the external factors driving habits, as well as precision parts manufacturing. Oil consumption can be a maximum of 1.0 liters per 1,000 km.
Upon reaching the boundary mark of the oil must be sure to refill.
Do not just pour a large amount of oil. If the car has been filled with the catalyst is too much oil, the excess part of the must be drained, otherwise unburnt oil will penetrate into the exhaust system and can destroy the catalyst.